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Common Weak Areas

ORALS

Private

  • Weather
    • Identification and characteristics of fronts including
      • How fronts and troughs are depicted on a surface analysis chart
      • Type of weather associated with the various fronts
      • Characteristics of cold frontal passage
    • Windshear
  • Communications
    • How to determine frequencies and procedures for contacting FAA & ATC (for flight following) using a VFR chart
    • Differences between FSS and Flight Watch services and communications
  • Density Altitude
    • Effects on takeoff, climb, cruise and landing (including reasons for)
  • Flight planning
    • Setting VFR checkpoints too far apart, or checkpoints that cannot be readily visually identified
    • Calculating fuel requirements – specifically use of fuel planning charts from the POH (remember to use fuel used for starting, taxi, takeoff)

Instrument Rating

  • Weather
    • How fronts and troughs are depicted on a surface analysis chart
    • Type of weather associated with the various fronts
    • Characteristics of cold frontal passage
  • Windshear
    • Casues, recognition, and recovery from windshear
  • Communication
    • How to determine frequencies and procedures for contacting FAA & ATC (for flight following) using a VFR chart
    • Differences between FSS and Flight Watch services and communications
  • Density Altitude
    • Effects on takeoff, climb, cruise and landing (including reasons for)
  • Anti-icing/de-icing equipment
  • Flight planning
    • Calculating fuel requirements – specifically use of fuel planning charts from the POH (remember to use fuel used for starting, taxi, takeoff)

Commercial Rating

  • Weather
    • How fronts and troughs are depicted on a surface analysis chart
    • Type of weather associated with the various fronts
    • Characteristics of cold frontal passage
  • Communication
    • How to determine frequencies and procedures for contacting FAA & ATC (for flight following) using a VFR chart
    • Differences between FSS and Flight Watch services and communications
  • Density Altitude
    • Effects on takeoff, climb, cruise and landing (including reasons for)
  • Commercial Pilot Privileges/Limitations
    • Requirements of FAR’s, 61.133, 91.14, 119.1, 135.1, 136
  • Flight planning
    • Setting VFR checkpoints too far apart, or checkpoints that cannot be readily visually identified
    • Calculating fuel requirements – specifically use of fuel planning charts from the POH (remember to use fuel used for starting, taxi, takeoff)

Multi-Engine Rating

  • Density Altitude
    • Effects on takeoff, climb, cruise and landing (including reasons for)
  • Factors affecting Vmc (CG, weight, bank angle, ect)
  • Relationship between Vmc and Vs (dangers)
  • Flight planning
    • Setting VFR checkpoints too far apart, or checkpoints that cannot be readily visually identified
    • Calculating fuel requirements – specifically use of fuel planning charts from the POH (remember to use fuel used for starting, taxi, takeoff)

Flight

Private Single Engine

  • Failure to watch for other traffic (before turning)
  • Lost procedures, being able to determine position using VOR’s (Center the needle in the FROM position by using 2 VOR’S that are somewhat perpendicular to each other in relation to the airplane’s estimated position) Remember not to allow the airplane to travel too far while checking the two VOR’S
  • Unusual attitudes, remember, to achieve minimal altitude loss safely
    • Nose high
      • Max power
      • Level the wings
      • Reduce angle of attack (lower the nose a bit). No negative G’s
    • Nose low
      • Power to idle
      • Level the nose
      • Raise the nose to slightly above horizon (no G’s)
      • Add power once airspeed is in the green and is decreasing (Airspeed reversal)
  • Emergency landings (simulated engine failures)
    • Often too high and not taking corrective action (adding flaps or slipping ) in a timely manner, or too low because of getting too far from desired landing point
  • Short field landings – airspeed control
  • Go-arounds – Reconfiguring the aircraft (flaps up, gear up) and establish a climb attitude

Instrument Rating

  • Exceeding deviation tolerances while tracking ILS/LOC/GS/VOR/GPS
  • Unusual attitudes, remember, to achieve minimal altitude loss safely
    • Nose high
      • Max power
      • Level the wings
      • Reduce angle of attack (lower the nose a bit). No negative G’s
    • Nose low
      • Power to idle
      • Level the nose
      • Raise the nose to slightly above horizon (no G’s)
      • Add power once airspeed is in the green and is decreasing (Airspeed reversal)
    • Remember to use all of your flight instrumentation in determining aircraft attitude
  • Missed approach – reconfiguring the aircraft (flaps up, gear up) and establish a climb attitude

Commercial

  • Failure to watch for other traffic
  • Lost procedures, , being able to determine position using VOR’s (Center the needle in the FROM position by using 2 VOR’S that are somewhat perpendicular to each other in relation to the airplane’s estimated position) Remember not to allow the airplane to travel too far while checking the two VOR’S
  • Emergency landings (simulated engine failures)
    • Often too high and not taking corrective action (adding flaps or slipping ) in a timely manner, or too low because of getting too far from desired landing point
  • Short field landings – airspeed control
  • Steep spiral – improper correction for effect of wind (remember this is a descending turn around a point)
  • 180° power-off approach
    • Improper planning/taking corrective action, resulting in undershoot or overshoot
  • Go-arounds
    • Reconfiguring the aircraft (flaps up, gear up) and establish a climb attitude

Multi-Engine

  • Airspeed control during Single-Engine ILS or Single-Engine pattern and approach to landing. NOTE: There is no requirement to maintain Vyse (blue line) exactly throughout a Single-Engine approach (unless the specific airplane POH states such) or while performing a Single-Engine maneuver. Safety and good airmanship dictates that Vyse be maintained as a minimum speed. It’s perfectly acceptable to exceed Vyse (within reason) and have a safety cushion above, provided that level flight (or climb if needed) can be achieved.
  • Exceeding deviation tolerances while tracking courses
  • Failure to be watching for other traffic
  • Short field landings – Airspeed control
  • All rounds – Reconfiguring the aircraft (flaps up, gear up) and establish a climb attitude

 

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